Listener's Guide

Radio Reception Reporting

Offer a simple reception report by readability, strength and tone.

The RST Code - Readability

The RST Code - Readability
R5Perfectly readable
R4Readable with little difficulty
R3Readable with considerable difficulty
R2Barely readable, occasional words audible
R1Unreadable

The RST Code - Strength

Strength is an assessment of how powerful the received signal is where you are, usually based on an S Meter reading adjusted by how much you like the other operator.

The RST Code - Strength
S1Faint signal, barely perceptible
S2Very weak
S3Weak
S4Fair
S5Fairly good
S6Good
S7Moderately strong
S8Strong
S9Very strong signals

So, a five and nine report is an excellent signal, something like a one and two isn't worth staying up for. We do enjoy hearing reports of ones and twos on 80m, the chap going on to say I don't care what the meter says - I'll give you a five and eight because I heard every word!

The RST Code - Tone

Tone is used in Morse code and digital transmissions and is omitted during voice operations. Operators still use it to describe modulation quality as if they are reviewers in an audio magazine.

The RST Code - Tone
T150/60 cycle AC or less, very rough and broad
T2Very rough AC, very harsh and broad
T3Rough AC tone, rectified but not filtered
T4Rough note, some trace of filtering
T5Filtered rectified AC but strongly ripple-modulated
T6Filtered tone, definite trace of ripple modulation
T7Near pure tone, trace of ripple modulation
T8Near perfect tone, slight trace of modulation
T9Perfect tone, no trace of ripple or modulation of any kind

The RST Code is a very general way of reporting, long overtaken by DSP. We tend to have a bit of fun with it so ignore our QSL cards.

SINPO And SINPFEMO Radio Signal Reporting

Your chance to say how degraded the signal is by interference, noise and propagation effects.

SINPO Code

With SINPO all we are doing is splitting the R part of an RST Report into its individual components I, N and P:

I stands for interference, or QRM. Think about this as a reading for the degrading effect of interference on the QSO. When giving the report you can think the same way as you do with the R report for RST. For a signal with very heavy QRM you give it a report of 1 and a signal with little or no QRM gets a report of 5.

N is for the degrading effects of noise - QRN. Note that interference from a broad-band data transmission might sound like noise, so if you can do some checks to ensure that you gave correctly determined whether the apparent noise is indeed noise rather than QRM.

P is a measure of propagation-related distortion such as fading, flutter or perhaps an auroral rasp on the signal. This is perhaps the more difficult one on which to report as on a strong signal the effects of QSB may be less noticeable with the good AGC/DSP systems in our rigs these days.

SINPO Code
SINPO
5ExcellentNilNilNilExcellent
4GoodSlightSlightSlightGood
3FairModerateModerateModerateFair
2PoorSevereSevereSeverePoor
1Barely audibleExtremeExtremeExtremeUnusable

We can offer even more detail bordering on information overload.

SINPFEMO Code

SINPFEMO is SINPO for grown-ups, adding additional reporting for Frequency Of Fading and some indication of Modulation quality. A station can't do much about fading out but it can do something about what it sounds like.

S - Signal Strength

I - Interference

N - Noise

P - Propagation

F - Fading of Frequency

E - Modulation Quality

M - Modulation Depth

O - Overall Rating

SINPFEMO Code
RatingSINP
5ExcellentNilNilNil
4GoodSlightSlightSlight
3FairModerateModerateModerate
2PoorSevereSevereSevere
1Barely audibleExtremeExtremeExtreme
SINPFEMO Code
RatingFEMO
5NilExcellentMaximumExcellent
4SlowGoodGoodGood
3ModerateFairFairFair
2FastPoorPoor or NilPoor
1Very fastVery poorContinuously over-modulatedUnusable

A signal report shall consist of the code word SINPO or SINPFEMO followed by a group of five or eight numerals. The Overall Rating for radiotelegraphy is shown below as a little guidance against gut reaction.

SINPFEMO Overall Rating
Overall RatingOperating ConditionQuality
Excellent
Good
Signal quality unaffected
Signal quality slightly affected
Commercial
FairSignal quality seriously affected
Channel usable by operators or by experienced subscribers
Marginally commercial
Poor
Unusable
Channel just usable by operators
Channel unusable by operators
Not commercial

At the end of the day, most radio operators tend to say:

It was alright leaving me

World Time Zones

World radio uses GMT, so listening times vary depending where you are.

World Time Zones
CountryISO CodeTime Shift From GMT/UTC
AfghanistanAFG4.5
AlbaniaALB1
AlgeriaDZA1
AndorraAND1
AngolaAGO1
Antigua and BarbudaATG-4
ArgentinaARG-3
ArmeniaARM4
AustraliaAUS8
AustriaAUT1
AzerbaijanAZE4
BahamasBHS-5
BahrainBHR3
BangladeshBGD6
BarbadosBRB-4
BelarusBLR2
BelgiumBEL1
BelizeBLZ-6
BeninBEN1
BhutanBTN6
BoliviaBOL-4
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBIH1
BotswanaBWA2
BrazilBRA-2
BruneiBRN8
BulgariaBGR2
Burkina FasoBFA0
BurundiBDI3
CambodiaKHM7
CameroonCMR1
CanadaCAN-3.5
Cape VerdeCPV-1
Central African RepublicCAF1
ChadTCD1
ChileCHL-4
ChinaCHN8
ColombiaCOL-5
ComorosCOM3
Congo, Republic of theCOG1
Congo, Democratic Republic of theCOD1
Costa RicaCRI-6
Cote d'IvoireCIV0
CroatiaHRV1
CubaCUB-5
CyprusCYP2
Czech RepublicCZE1
DenmarkDNK1
DjiboutiDJI3
DominicaDMA-4
Dominican RepublicDOM-4
EcuadorECU-5
EgyptEGY2
El SalvadorSLV-6
Equatorial GuineaGNQ1
EritreaERI3
EstoniaEST2
EthiopiaETH3
FijiFJI12
FinlandFIN2
FranceFRA1
GabonGAB1
The GambiaGMB0
GeorgiaGEO4
GermanyDEU1
GhanaGHA0
GreeceGRC2
GrenadaGRD-4
GuatemalaGTM-6
GuineaGIN0
Guinea-BissauGNB0
GuyanaGUY-3
HaitiHTI-5
HondurasHND-6
HungaryHUN1
IcelandISL0
IndiaIND5.5
IndonesiaIDN7
IranIRN3.5
IraqIRQ3
IrelandIRL0
Israel and Palestinian territoriesISR2
ItalyITA1
JamaicaJAM-5
JapanJPN9
JordanJOR2
KazakhstanKAZ4
KenyaKEN3
KiribatiKIR12
Korea, NorthPRK9
Korea, SouthKOR9
KosovoKOS1
KuwaitKWT3
KyrgyzstanKGZ5
LaosLAO7
LatviaLVA2
LebanonLBN2
LesothoLSO3
LiberiaLBR0
LibyaLBY2
LiechtensteinLIE1
LithuaniaLTU2
LuxembourgLUX1
MacedoniaMKD1
MadagascarMDG3
MalawiMWI2
MalaysiaMYS8
MaldivesMDV5
MaliMLI0
MaltaMLT1
Marshall IslandsMHL12
MauritaniaMRT0
MauritiusMUS4
MexicoMEX-6
Micronesia, Federated States ofFSM11
MoldovaMDA2
MonacoMCO1
MongoliaMNG8
MontenegroMNE1
MoroccoMAR0
MozambiqueMOZ2
Myanmar (formerly Burma)MMR6.5
NamibiaNAM1
NauruNRU12
NepalNPL5.75
NetherlandsNLD1
New ZealandNZL12
NicaraguaNIC-6
NigerNER1
NigeriaNGA1
NorwayNOR1
OmanOMN4
PakistanPAK5
PalauPLW9
PanamaPAN-5
Papua New GuineaPNG10
ParaguayPRY-4
PeruPER-5
PhilippinesPHL8
PolandPOL1
PortugalPRT0
QatarQAT3
RomaniaROM2
RussiaRUS2
RwandaRWA2
Saint Kitts and NevisKNA-4
Saint LuciaLCA-4
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesVCT-4
SamoaWSM-11
San MarinoSMR1
Sao Tome and PrincipeSTP0
Saudi ArabiaSAU3
SenegalSEN0
SerbiaSRB1
SeychellesSYC4
Sierra LeoneSLE0
SingaporeSGP8
SlovakiaSVK1
SloveniaSVN1
Solomon IslandsSLB11
SomaliaSOM3
South AfricaZAF2
SpainESP1
Sri LankaLKA5.5
SudanSDN3
SurinameSUR-3
SwazilandSWZ2
SwedenSWE1
SwitzerlandCHE1
SyriaSYR2
TaiwanTWN8
TajikistanTJK5
TanzaniaTZA3
ThailandTHA7
Timor-Leste (formerly East Timor)TMP9
TogoTGO0
TongaTON13
Trinidad and TobagoTTO-4
TunisiaTUN1
TurkeyTUR2
TurkmenistanTKM5
TuvaluTUV12
UgandaUGA3
UkraineUKR2
United Arab EmiratesARE4
United KingdomGBR0
United States of AmericaUSA-5
UruguayURY-3
UzbekistanUZB5
VanuatuVUT11
Vatican City (Holy See)VAT1
VenezuelaVEN-4.5
VietnamVNM7
YemenYEM3
ZambiaZMB2
ZimbabweZWE2